Until now, I posted things about many countries' beauty in Africa. First time, I posted Ethiopia's nature makeup and in second time, I investigated Zambia people's daily necessity, the wig. Through those postings, I knew that two country's viewpoints about beauty are very different. Ethiopia tribes have pride about their culture and nature, so they don't compromise with the civilization and stick to their old customs. While Zambia peopl have broad-mindedness about civilization, so they usually use the wig in Korea. 

  In third time, I posted other country's different viewpoint of beauty. It is about Kenya tribe's beauty. Kenya's one of the many tribes, The Masai Mara have remained their traditional lifestyles - living like their ancestors have been doing for thousands of years. They have respected their customs and traditions like Ethiopia tribe hadve done. This trait is different to Zambia people's trait. Meanwhile Kenya's tribe The Masai Mara are recognized by their bright red clothing and beaded jewelry. They emphasize colorful and brilliant accessory. 

  Ethiopia, Zambia, and Kenya are all located in Africa, but they all have different beauty styles. It's very amazing and interesting. Through these postings, I learned relativity of cultures and various viewpoints of beauty. Today, I will finish this big run of Africa beauty, through posting Fulani's beauty. Fulani are spreaded in many Africa countires. They don't have their own inherent country. But they have beauty tradition, LIP TATTOO and GUEREOL FESTIVAL. Their viewpoint of beauty has deplorableness and I feel sad so much. Through this last posting, I want you to feel sadness that I have feeled. Then let's go!

About Mali

  Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 square kilometres with a population of 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako.

   Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.

  Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups. The Bambara are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36.5% of the population. About 80% of Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which is the country's principal lingua franca. Mali's official language is French, but numerous African languages also are widely used by the various ethnic groups. Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, Khassonké, and Malinké, all part of the broader Mandé group, constitute 50% of Mali's population. Other significant groups are the Fula(17%), Voltaic (12%), Songhai (6%), and Tuareg and Moor (10%). Over the past 40 years, persistent drought has forced many Tuareg to give up their nomadic way of life.


About Fulani

  Fula people or Fulani or Fulbe are the largest Migratory ethnic group in the world. They are among the "Super" ethnic groups of Africa with members numbering 30 Million and Above, alongside the Hausa, Yoruba, Oromo and Igbo. They are an ethnic group spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa and Northern parts of Central Africa, but also in Sudanese North Africa. Overall, the territory and range of where Fulani people can be found, is significantly larger than the United states and Western Europe in area. Being one of the most widely dispersed and culturally most diverse people of the African continent, Fulani culture comes in a myriad of different expressions in clothing, Music, and lifestyle.  In order to survive in poor soil, they have to do a lot of things. But they don't miss  taking care of their appearance. Fulani have pride in their appearance, and they don't be lazy to adorn their face and body.

Fula Women's Lip Tattoo

Even if you die now to be beautiful, it is a proud thing.
  To the Fulani, 'Pure tooth' is the first condition of beauty. So when women become 15 years old, they tattoo gums, lips, and chins darkly to emphasize their white tooth. To those, tattoos are a symbol of beauty and courage. By enduring the pains that dig the tender flesh in silence, Fulani women reborn to overcome the trials.

To create Fulani women's aesthetic symbol, black lips
  The people who make the black lips are young women. Fulani women who originally have red lips use ashes and needles to make their lips black. After applying black ashes enough to cover the entire lips, tattooist beat around the mouth using the needles-enclosed tool. Because needle punched through the lips and mouth, blood flow through the skin, but young women never cry. It is thought that crying or tossing during a tattoo isn't honorable.

Fula Men's Guereol Festival

  Wishing to get "beauty" don't limited only for women. Fula men also show amazing interest in beauty. They have many decorating tools like perfumes, eye-liners, and mirrors. Fula men participate the beauty contest "Guereol". First they put on heavy makeup and adorn themselves, and then dance intensely. When they dance, they also turn up the whites of their eyes and smile on the grin. Because man who has more bright eyes and tooth is thought to be the most beautiful person.


 The video clip is about Mali tribe, Fluani's beauty. If you want to know more about 'the Fluani's lip tattoo and Guereol festival, play the video. (00:50:30~00:57:30)

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